There was no way NASA could stand two failures in a row. [55], The Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) array of scientific instruments carried by Apollo 14 consisted of the Passive Seismic Experiment (PSE), Active Seismic Experiment (ASE), Suprathermal Ion Detector (SIDE), Cold Cathode Ion Gauge (CCIG), and Charged Particle Lunar Environmental Experiment (CPLEE). Structural changes were made to accommodate the equipment to be used on the lunar surface, including the Modular Equipment Transporter. [48] The Apollo 13 astronauts had suffered shortages of water and of power after the accident. The Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) was deployed about 180 meters west of the LM. [120] A gold band around the edge includes the mission and astronaut names. [71], Apollo 14 launched from Launch Complex 39-A at KSC at 4:03:02 pm (21:03:02 UTC), January 31, 1971. The quantity probe in each tank was upgraded from aluminum to stainless steel. [89] Shepard brought along a six iron golf club head which he could attach to the handle of a lunar excavation tool, and two golf balls, and took several one-handed swings (due to the limited flexibility of the EVA suit). Apollo 14 was the eighth crewed mission in the United States Apollo program, the third to land on the Moon, and the first to land in the lunar highlands. [95], In January 2019 research showed that Big Bertha, which weighs 19.837 pounds (8.998 kg), has characteristics that make it likely to be a terrestrial (Earth) meteorite. [48] A third tank was also added, placed in Bay 1 of the SM, on the side opposite the other two, and was given a valve that could isolate it in an emergency, and allow it to feed the CM's environmental system only. [9] CAPCOMs, the individuals in Mission Control responsible for communications with the astronauts were Evans, McCandless, Fullerton and Haise. El-Baz had Roosa make observations while flying his T-38 jet at a speed and altitude simulating the speed at which the lunar surface would pass below the CSM. Testberichte zu Apollo astronaut scott analysiert. [109] During his rest periods on the voyage, Mitchell conducted ESP experiments without NASA's knowledge or sanction, attempting by prearrangement to send images of cards he had brought with him to four people on Earth. He stated after the mission that two of the four had gotten 51 out of 200 correct (the others were less successful), whereas random chance would have dictated 40. Performing the bistatic radar experiment, he also focused Kitty Hawk's VHF and S-band transmitters at the Moon so that they would bounce off and be detected on Earth in an effort to learn more about the depth of the lunar regolith. [87] The difficulties faced by Shepard and Mitchell would emphasize the need for a means of transportation on the lunar surface with a navigation system, which was met by the Lunar Roving Vehicle, already planned to fly on Apollo 15. Harrison Schmitt suggested that the commander had other things on his mind, such as overcoming a ten-year absence from spaceflight and ensuring a successful mission after the near-disaster of Apollo 13. The Fra Mauro formation is composed of ejecta from the impact event that formed Mare Imbrium, and scientists hoped for samples that originated deep under the Moon's surface. Astronauts Alan B. Shepard Jr., commander, and Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot, will descend to the lunar surface in the Lunar Module (LM) "Antares". Two additional lunar surface experiments not part of the ALSEP were also flown, the Laser Ranging Retro-Reflector (LRRR or LR3), to be deployed in the ALSEP's vicinity, and the Lunar Portable Magnetometer (LPM), to be used by the astronauts during their second EVA. Deployment of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package. A similar experiment was successfully deployed, and the mortars launched, on Apollo 16. [77], After separating from the command module in lunar orbit, the LM Antares had two serious problems. Of the 21 thumpers,[84] five failed to fire. In the first, one of the crew members would deploy three geophones at distances up to 310 feet (94 m) from the ALSEP's Central Station, and on his way back from the furthest, fire thumpers every 15 feet (4.6 m). [58] [14][15], Mitchell's commander on the Apollo 10 backup crew had been another of the original seven, Gordon Cooper, who had tentatively been scheduled to command Apollo 13, but according to author Andrew Chaikin, his casual attitude toward training resulted in his nonselection. With the landing radar, Shepard steered the LM to a landing which was the closest to the intended target of the six missions that landed on the Moon. A small cluster of rocks and a few prints made by the lunar overshoes of Mitchell are in the foreground. The second consisted of four mortars (with their launch tubes), of different properties and set to impact at different distances from the experiment. After recovery by the ship USS New Orleans,[113] the crew was flown to Pago Pago International Airport in Tafuna, then to Honolulu, then to Ellington Air Force Base near Houston in a plane containing a Mobile Quarantine Facility trailer before they continued their quarantine in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory. After TLI, the CSM separated from the S-IVB, and Roosa performed the transposition maneuver, turning it around in order to dock with the LM before the entire spacecraft separated from the stage. Apollo 14 was the first H-type mission which was followed by Apollo 15. Apollo 12 had launched during poor weather, but had twice been struck by lightning, as a result of which the rules had been tightened. [45] Also considered part of the spacecraft were the Launch Escape System and the Spacecraft/Launch Vehicle Adapter. [81] One patch, attached to Shepard's PLSS, was worn on the lunar surface, and, mounted on a plaque, was presented by him to Cernan after the mission. Navigaatio ← Apollo 13: Apollo 15 → Infobox OK: Kuumoduuli Antarekseen vievät jäljet. Despite concerns based on the docking problems early in the mission, the docking was successful on the first attempt, though the LM's Abort Guidance System, used for navigation, failed just before the two craft docked. [100][101] After the mission, troubleshooting found a tiny piece of aluminum contaminating the shutter control circuit, which caused the shutter to operate continuously. Im Ries üben 1970 vier amerikanische Astronauten der Mission Apollo 14, Gesteine zu unterscheiden. Apollo 14 - Im Fra-Mauro-Hochland . Because it had, just over two days after launch, the mission timers would be put ahead by 40 minutes and 3 seconds so that later events would take place at the times scheduled in the flight plan. 26 January 1971. Apollo 20, Liste der künstlichen Objekte auf dem Mond, LROC News System: Trail of Discovery at Fra Mauro, https://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Apollo_14&oldid=202446974, „Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike“, ein aktives seismisches Experiment, welches Sprengladungen in die Mondoberfläche schoss, ein „Suprathermal Ion Detector“ Experiment zum Aufspüren von Gasen, ein „Cold Cathode Gauge“ Experiment zur Atmosphärendruckmessung, ein „Charged Particle Lunar Environment“ Experiment, eine Art, ein Laserreflektor zur Bestimmung des Abstands Erde-Mond (. Scan by Ed Hengeveld. These were instituted because of the difficulty in telling one spacesuited astronaut from the other in photographs. [20], During projects Mercury and Gemini, each mission had a prime and a backup crew. [42][54] The mission would take a faster trajectory to the Moon than planned, and thus make up the time in flight. Earthrise: My Adventures as an Apollo 14 Astronaut (English Edition) eBook: Mitchell, Edgar, Mahoney, Ellen, Cox, Dr. Brian, Cox, Dr. Brian: Amazon.de: Kindle-Shop After liftoff from the surface and a successful docking, the spacecraft was flown back to Earth where the three astronauts splashed down safely in the Pacific Ocean on February 9. [117] Some seedlings were given to state forestry associations in 1975 and 1976 to mark the United States Bicentennial. [75] The stage was set on a course to impact the Moon, which it did just over three days later, causing the Apollo 12 seismometer to register vibrations for over three hours. [67], Also taken to the lunar surface were water bags, dubbed "Gunga Dins", for insertion in the astronauts' helmets, allowing them sips of water during the EVAs. [49], Also in response to the Apollo 13 accident, the electrical wiring in Bay 4 (where the explosion had happened) was sheathed in stainless steel. Apollo 14 hatte einen betont wissenschaftlichen Charakter und sollte wertvolle Erkenntnisse über den Mond liefern. Die Anzahl an Alternativen ist bei uns zweifelsohne enorm gigantisch. [52], The Saturn V used for Apollo 14 was designated SA-509, and was similar to those used on Apollo 8 through 13. The Lunar Topographic Camera, also known as the Hycon camera, was supposed to be used to image the surface, including the Descartes Highlands site being considered for Apollo 16, but it quickly developed a fault with the shutter that Roosa could not fix despite considerable help from Houston. Smoke Jumper, Moon Pilot: The Remarkable Life of Apollo 14 Astronaut Stuart Roosa Willie G. Moseley. [57] The ALSEP components flown on Apollo 13 were destroyed when its LM burned up in Earth's atmosphere. The Apollo 14 instrument would be calibrated by the impact, after being jettisoned, of the LM's ascent stage, since an object of known mass and velocity would be impacting at a known location on the Moon. En route to the lunar landing, the crew overcame a series of malfunctions that might have resulted in a second consecutive aborted mission, and possibly, the premature end of the Apollo program. He then fired the thumper explosives, vibrations from which would give scientists back on Earth information about the depth and composition of the lunar regolith. Breccias form when the heat and pressure of meteorite impacts fuse small rock fragments together. [68] Similarly, Shepard was the first on the lunar surface to wear a space suit with commander's stripes: red stripes on arms, legs, and on the helmet, though one had been worn by Lovell on Apollo 13. [102], Roosa was able to see the sun glinting off Antares and view its lengthy shadow on the lunar surface on Orbit 17; on Orbit 29 he could see the sun reflecting off the ALSEP. The craters that Shepard and Mitchell planned to use for navigational landmarks looked very different on the ground than on the maps they had, based on overhead shots taken from lunar orbit. The crew originally designated for Apollo 14, Jim Lovell as the commander, Ken Mattingly as CMP and Fred Haise as LMP, all of whom had backed up Apollo 11, was made the prime crew for Apollo 13 instead. [72] Two legs combined with the wheels to provide four-point stability when at rest. [42] The Apollo 13 accident had been caused by the explosive failure of an oxygen tank, after the insulation of the internal wiring had been damaged by heating of the tank contents pre-launch—that the oxygen had gotten hot enough to damage the insulation had not been realized, since the protective thermostatic switches had failed because they were, through an error, not designed to handle the voltage applied during ground testing. There was some difficulty locating a level site. Apollo 14 Backup Commander Gene Cernan, left, outside astronaut crew quarters as Kennedy Space Center. He had experimental surgery in 1968 which was successful and allowed his return to flight status. [66] The OPSs used on Apollo 14 were modified from those used on previous missions in that the internal heaters were removed as unnecessary. "[89] Geologist Lee Silver stated, "The Apollo 14 crews did not have the right attitude, did not learn enough about their mission, had the burden of not having the best possible preflight photography, and they weren't ready. Apollo 11: The Inside Story David Whitehouse. Additionally, they consistently overestimated the distance they traveled. The total haul from the rim-flank of Cone ... was 16 Hasselblad photographs (out of a mission total of 417), six rock-size samples heavier than 50 g, and a grand total of 10 kg of samples, 9 kg of which are in one rock (sample 14321 [i.e., Big Bertha]). After the astronauts cycled the landing radar breaker, the unit successfully acquired a signal near 22,000 feet (6,700 m). It was the last of the "H missions," landings at specific sites of scientific interest on the Moon for two-day stays with two lunar extravehicular activities (EVAs or moonwalks). August 2020 um 20:48 Uhr bearbeitet. A second burn, at 86:10:52 mission time, sent the spacecraft into an orbit of 58.8 nautical miles (108.9 km; 67.7 mi) by 9.1 nautical miles (16.9 km; 10.5 mi). [32] Mitchell later stated, "We realized that if our mission failed—if we had to turn back—that was probably the end of the Apollo program. [5] Thereafter, he was grounded by Ménière's disease, a disorder of the ear, and served as Chief Astronaut, the administrative head of the Astronaut Office. Cone crater was the result of a young, deep impact, and large enough to have torn through whatever debris was deposited since the Imbrium Event, which geologists hoped to be able to date. [121], The Apollo 14 command module Kitty Hawk is on display at the Apollo/Saturn V Center at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex after being on display at the United States Astronaut Hall of Fame near Titusville, Florida, for several years. This would prevent the low fuel light coming on prematurely, as had happened on Apollo 11 and 12. This would mean Big Bertha is both the first discovered terrestrial meteorite and the oldest known Earth rock. Der Start ... Jeder Astronaut erhielt täglich eine Ration von 635 Gramm mit etwa 2.800 Kalorien. The primary objectives of the Apollo 14 mission were to explore the Fra Mauro region of the Moon, centered around deployment of the Apollo Lunar Surface Scientific Experiments Package, or ALSEP. After crew, equipment and lunar samples were transferred to Kitty Hawk, the ascent stage was jettisoned, and impacted the Moon,[105][106] setting off waves registered by the seismometers from Apollo 12 and 14. [64] The LRRRs from Apollo 11, 14 and 15 are the only experiments left on the Moon by the Apollo astronauts that are still returning data. If the problem recurred after the descent engine fired, the computer would think the signal was real and would initiate an auto-abort, causing the ascent stage to separate from the descent stage and climb back into orbit. [90] Mitchell then threw a lunar scoop handle as if it were a javelin. Courtesy: NASA/JSC Click to subscribe! [74] Mission Control proposed that they try it again with the docking probe retracted, hoping the contact would trigger the latches. Fully loaded, the MET weighed about 165 pounds (75 kg). [110][111] But when he gently brought the modules together, the docking mechanism would not activate. The mission commander of Apollo 14, Alan Shepard, one of the original Mercury Seven astronauts, became the first American to enter space with a suborbital flight on May 5, 1961. Audio CD. To the dismay of some geologists, Shepard and Mitchell did not reach the rim of Cone crater as had been planned, though they came close. [116], Roosa, who worked in forestry in his youth, took several hundred tree seeds on the flight. [28], The investigation into the accident which caused an abort of Apollo 13 delayed Apollo 14. [93] Others were less happy; Don Wilhelms wrote in his book on the geological aspects of Apollo, "the golf game did not set well with most geologists in light of the results at Cone crater. With the risk that the Apollo programme could be cancelled at any moment, Apollo 14 was re-planned to visit this scientifically vital area. Aus diesem Grunde wollte man die wenigen Chancen so effizient wie möglich nutzen. Additionally, a navigation exercise was done to simulate a return to Earth following a loss of communications. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 2. The designer was Jean Beaulieu,[119] who based it on a sketch by Shepard, who had been head of the Astronaut Office and meant the pin to symbolize that through him, the entire corps was in spirit flying to the Moon. At 60:30 Ground Elapsed Time, Shepard and Mitchell entered the LM to check its systems; while there they photographed a wastewater dump from the CSM, part of a particle contamination study in preparation for Skylab. 23,28 € Nur noch 2 auf Lager. Those individuals were given physical examinations and immunizations, and crew movements were limited as much as possible at KSC and nearby areas. We Seven: By the Astronauts Themselves Scott M. Carpenter. Mission Control and the CAPCOM, Fred Haise, could see nothing of this, as the television camera remained near the LM, but they worried as the clock ticked on the EVA, and monitored the heavy breathing and rapid heartbeats of the astronauts. Da diese Mission den Mond jedoch nicht erreichte, übernahm Apollo 14 diese Aufgabe. The spacecraft and Mission Control monitoring systems were modified to give more immediate and visible warnings of anomalies. Its objectives included a detailed probe on the moon. [53] At 6,505,548 pounds (2,950,867 kg), it was the heaviest vehicle yet flown by NASA, 3,814 pounds (1,730 kg) heavier than the launch vehicle for Apollo 13. [40] The launch vehicle stack, with the spacecraft on top, was rolled out from the Vehicle Assembly Building to Pad 39A on November 9, 1970. [79], A second problem occurred during the powered descent, when the LM landing radar failed to lock automatically onto the Moon's surface, depriving the navigation computer of vital information on the vehicle's altitude and vertical descent speed. http://bit.ly/subAIRBOYD The most viewed aviation channel on YouTube. [27] Apollo 14 was scheduled for July 1970, but in January of that year, due to budget cuts that saw the cancellation of Apollo 20, NASA decided there would be two Apollo missions per year with 1970 to see Apollo 13 in April and Apollo 14 likely in October or November. [119] The pin is leaving Earth and is approaching the Moon. Auch wenn dieser Apollo astronaut scott ohne Zweifel im höheren Preissegment liegt, spiegelt sich der Preis auf jeden Fall in Langlebigkeit und Qualität wider. [76], The crew settled in for its voyage to Fra Mauro. The mortar shells were not to be fired until the astronauts had returned to Earth,[60] and in the event were never fired for fear they would damage other experiments. [6] Shepard, at age 47, was the oldest U.S. astronaut to fly when he made his trip aboard Apollo 14, and he is the oldest person to walk on the Moon. [62] [47], The changes in response included a redesign of the oxygen tanks, with the thermostats being upgraded to handle the proper voltage. In 2011, the LRO returned to the landing site at a lower altitude to take higher resolution photographs. Because of the failed mission of Apollo 13, it had been a long while before they sent another mission to space—Apollo 14. The Apollo 12 instrument would also be activated by the spent Apollo 14 S-IVB booster, which would impact the Moon after the mission entered lunar orbit. When Shepard and Mitchell were on their geology field trips, Roosa would be overhead in an airplane taking photographs of the site and making observations. Apollo 9 commander James McDivitt believed meetings that required a member of the flight crew were being missed, so for Apollo a third crew of astronauts was added, known as the support crew. Als Verbindungssprecher während des Fluges dienten die Ersatzleute Gordon, Brand und Schmitt, die Mitglieder der Unterstützungsmannschaft (Allen, Henize und Parker), die Apollo-14-Astronauten Alan Shepard und Edgar Mitchell, sowie Gordon Fullerton aus der siebten Astronautengruppe. [69], The Modular Equipment Transporter (MET) was a two-wheeled handcart, used only on Apollo 14, intended to allow the astronauts to take tools and equipment with them, and store lunar samples, without needing to carry them. [39], The Command and Service Modules were delivered to KSC on November 19, 1969; the ascent stage of the LM arrived on November 21 with the descent stage three days later. [10] He served as a capsule communicator (CAPCOM) for Apollo 9. Sun that reached the lunar atmosphere and was destroyed, though the tended. University looked at bits of the plaque which the Apollo lunar surface Experiments Package ( ALSEP ) flown! Wurde über Bord gepumpt, während die festen Abfallstoffe gesammelt wurden was successful and allowed his return to flight.! Point designated for Apollo 14 hatte einen betont wissenschaftlichen Charakter und sollte wertvolle Erkenntnisse über den Mond jedoch erreichte... 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