Dorer G, Harries P, Marston L. Measuring social inclusion: a staff survey of mental health service users’ participation in community occupations. When we look more closely at this tool, all of the domains it covers overlap with those of other social inclusion measures described in Table 2. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Piachaud D, Bennett F, Nazroo J, Popay J. 2008. http://www1.paho.org/hq/dmdocuments/2010/PHC_The_World_Health_Report-2008.pdf. 2012. Abbreviations of names of tools in Tables below are suggested; some have been suggested by the creators of the tools themselves, others have been originally used by previous review authors. The human givens. Understanding social exclusion. Find reliable measures for use in your questionnaires. Social anthropologists argue that exclusion is a process and that identifying and measuring it risks essentialising statistical categories into groups. 2014;119(1):121–37. Daly M. Social Exclusion as Concept and Policy Tempate in the European Union: Center for European Studies Working Paper Series #135: Minda de Gunzburg Center for European Studies Harvard University. Arksey H, O’Malley L. Scoping studies: towards a methodological framework. This highlights the point that the concepts of social inclusion and social exclusion are felt to be relevant to researchers and practitioners across many disciplines, but this may have led to duplication when it came to the development of measurement tools. 2007. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTECONEVAL/Resources/SocialExclusionReviewDraft.pdf. Hacking S, Bates P. The inclusion web: a tool for person-centered planning and service evaluation. Understanding and tackling social exclusion. Development and validation of a social inclusion questionnaire to evaluate the impact of attending a modernised mental health day service. Huxley PJ, Chan K, Chiu M, Ma Y, Gaze S, Evans S. The social and community opportunities profile social inclusion measure: structural equivalence and differential item functioning in community mental health residents in Hong Kong and the United Kingdom. This also overlaps with the argument from some authors that health should be considered a human right and that a rights framework should be used to set appropriate standards and allocate responsibility for the improvement of the health status of certain groups in society [32]. KE is Senior Lecturer in Public Health at the University of Limerick Graduate Entry Medical School. In Ireland, the term social inclusion has been adopted widely and appears frequently in policy documents across various sectors, particularly in health. The empiric and grey literature searches were carried out as detailed above. This may demonstrate that health policies and health system interventions aimed at marginalised and socially excluded groups have tangible benefits. POD drafted manuscript for publication that was commented on by KE and DOD. The LCQ was a tool produced by adding questions on topics such as housing and physical health to the existing APQ-6 tool following feedback from relevant groups. The now disbanded Combat Poverty Agency defined social inclusion as “a series of positive actions to achieve equality of access to goods and services, to assist all individuals participate in their community and society, to encourage the contribution of all persons to social and cultural life and to be aware of, and to challenge all forms of discrimination”, clearly putting an onus on the government to be proactive in this regard [18]. Social exclusion is a concept that has been widely debated in recent years; a particular focus of the discussion has been its significance in relation to health. 2015;124(1):127–39. When reviewing the administration of the tools, the number of items or questions included in each tool varied; with 121 questions asked in the long version of the SCOPE too, compared to four questions in the measure of Multidimensional Social Inclusion (MSI). 2008. http://apo.org.au/system/files/8799/apo-nid8799-90181.pdf. As primary healthcare is the point of initial contact the majority of people have with the health system and it includes such a wide variety of components, it can offer help for many health issues. This scoping review was therefore developed to address the following specific questions: how are social exclusion and social inclusion defined in relation to health, and how are social exclusion and social inclusion measured at the individual level in healthcare settings. The most common domain seen was Social Networks (referred to in some way in all 22 tools); which included all aspects of interaction with family members and friends, and feeling accepted by them. Gore C, Figueiredo JB, editors. One possible reason for this is recognition of the immense, and increasing, economic and social burden of mental ill health worldwide [53,54,55]. While the definitions of social inclusion and social exclusion themselves are unclear, the fact that authors and policy makers also use other similar, but equally ill-defined, terms in discussion of these complex concepts may add to the confusion around the issue. 2012; https://doi.org/10.3310/hta16010. 2014;7(1):30–41. This implies that inclusion and exclusion are the opposites of each other. Accessed 14 Dec 2016. Developing the living in the community questionnaire: reporting the social outcomes of mental health care. In: Marmot M, Wilkinson R, editors. Ginzler JA, Monroe-DeVita M. Downtown Emergency Service Center’s Vulnerability Assessment Tool for individuals coping with chronic homelessness: A psychometric analysis: The University of Washington. The field of primary healthcare is the ideal place to seek to document and analyse social exclusion in relation to health. 2015. http://www.amhocn.org/sites/default/files/publication_files/living_in_the_community_questionnaire_lcq_final_report.pdf. Depressive symptoms were measured by a 15-item Chinese version Geriatric Depression Scale. 2016;52(8):1113–7. The sample group of the study consisted of 244 female adolescents aged 12-18 living in Cinar district of Diyarbakir. International Journal for Equity in Health 2015;3(4):63–75. The copyrights for the books sold here as well as the individual scale reviews and the website itself are owned by Dr. Gordon C. Bruner II. 2008;55(1):47–56. 2006;9(10):14–21. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. The creators of four other tools (SCOPE-C, CMSI, LCQ and MHRS) also explained that their particular measure was based on an existing tool. Chan K, Evans S, Chiu MY-L, Huxley PJ, Ng Y-L. This scoping review found that the concepts of social inclusion and social exclusion, while often described as abstract and lacking clarity, have both been discussed and measured at the individual level in relation to health. 2010. http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/publications/measuring-social-inclusion.pdf. O’Donnell, P., O’Donovan, D. & Elmusharaf, K. Measuring social exclusion in healthcare settings: a scoping review. The specific websites that were searched included those of the United Nations Development Programme, the World Bank and the WHO. Social Exclusion Cyberball is a computer-based task that in-duces feelings of exclusion, relative to a social inclusion con-trol condition [37]. : critically assessing the rise of the homelessness outcomes star. The literature on social exclusion is, obviously, not for the abstemious. World Health Organization. This is a veritable explosion of concern. 2005;8 https://doi.org/10.1080/1364557032000119616. 2004. http://www.who.int/mental_health/evidence/MH_Promotion_Book.pdf. Mezey G, White S, Thachil A, Berg R, Kallumparam S, Nasiruddin O, et al. ... or the rich people who lock themselves away at the other end of the social scale? Firstly, critical appraisal of the background papers or the resulting tools was not included as this was beyond the scope of this type of review. Soc Indic Res. Soc Indic Res. All authors have reviewed the final manuscript for submission. We have listed the measurement tools developed for use with individual patients in healthcare settings. ‘Social exclusion is a complex and multi-dimensional process. The authors summarised that “action to improve the health of disadvantaged populations should …. s.n.. There were a number of limitations to this scoping review. Social exclusion is a common part of life. Researchers agree that social exclusion serves a specific function for those who employ it, an… Correspondence to Cite this article. Soc Inclusion. Accessed 12 May 2016. In addition, the fact that there are over thirty different domains mentioned across the 22 tools we investigated highlights the fact that work in this area is hampered by the lack of a consensus definition and agreement on the domains that should be accounted for in any measure. What is needed. Sayce L. From psychiatric patient to citizen: overcoming discrimination and social exclusion. The mental health recovery star. PubMed  Of the papers that did set out a clear definition at the outset, it was one from the World Bank that appeared most often [46]. Globalization and social exclusion in cities: framing the debate with lessons from Africa and Asia. 2010. http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/http:/www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/media/346574/inclusion-health-evidencepack.pdf. The concept of “social exclusion” has become more prominent in discussions across many disciplines over the last number of decades. The majority of the tools included were constructed for engaging with patients in mental health settings. Instead, they looked at the closely linked concepts of participation, integration, recovery and vulnerability. 2007;64(8):1719–37. Margrove KL, Heydinrych K, Secker J. Another reason the SEKN work may not feature is that the SEKN authors stated “inclusion in some measures of a variety of health indicators as a component of or risk factor for social exclusion, rather than an outcome of the experience, all make it difficult to ‘measure’ the impact of social exclusion in health outcomes”. Mental Health and Social Exclusion: Social Exclusion Unit Report Summary: Office of the Deputy Prime Minister. Williamson M, Allen A. 2016; https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/daw005. World Health Organization. Disabil Rehabil. It is notable that none of the tools stated that its aim was to measure only social exclusion. Soc Policy J N Z. There are two versions of this scale included; the short, 6 item scale and the 12 item scale. Development of a social inclusion index to capture subjective and objective life domains (phase II): psychometric development study. Gordon D, Adelman L, Ashworth K, Bradshaw J, Levitas R, Middleton S et al. Med. Davis FA, Burns J. Topping A. Looting ‘fuelled by social exclusion’. Observatory on National Policies to Combat Social Exclusion: Second Annual Report: Commission of the European Communities Directorate General Employment, Social Affairs and Industrial Relations. Graduate Entry Medical School, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland, School of Medicine, Clinical Science Institute, National University of Ireland, Room 342, Galway, Ireland, You can also search for this author in Each individual with disbailities is faced with these problems in accordance with his own conditions. Accessed 24 May 2017. Open Access: free to read and share, with an article processing charge for accepted papers to offset production costs (more details here). What we know. Ment Health Pract. The social quality of Europe. Med. Poverty and Social Exclusion in the WHO European Region: Briefing on policy issues produced through the WHO/European Commission equity project: World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Coombs T, Reed C, Rosen A. The overwhelming majority of the scales can be used without permission but citations of the original sources or some previous users are expected when reports, papers, or articles are written that refer to the measures. However, social exclusion can also occur in the online world as cyberostracism (Williams et al., 2000). One such example is the Poverty and Social Exclusion Survey of Britain ... A 6-item scale for overall, emotional, and social loneliness: Confirmatory tests on … Room described many of the recurring ideas seen across various definitions when he stated that social exclusion was ultimately a “multidimensional, dynamic and relational concept” [14, 62, 63]. Actions to alleviate this state or the processes of exclusion are seen as crucial in addressing the health needs of all, and the health needs of marginalised groups in particular [7, 25]. Google Scholar. 2013. http://www.rcgp.org.uk/news/2013/december/~/media/Files/Policy/A-Z-policy/RCGP-Social-Inclusion-Commissioning-Guide.ashx. Reliability and validity of the social integration survey (SIS) in patients with schizophrenia. Dickens G, Weleminsky J, Onifade Y, Sugarman P. Recovery star: validating user recovery. The basis for this goal is the idea that an individual with mental illness who receives appropriate and timely treatment will eventually become more engaged and included in society, making it more likely that they will be able to re-enter the workforce and contribute. Accessed 14 Sep 2016. It consists of four items (ranging from 1 = “strongly agree” to 4 = “strongly disagree”): “I am worried to be left behind”, “I feel like I do not really belong to society”, “I feel that I am left out”, and “I feel excluded from society”. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2005. p. 196–223. Berry HL, Rodgers B, Dear KB. Clear instructions should be provided to participants so that they respond with respect to a particular time period. The seminal 2008 WHO World Health Report advised that making primary healthcare universal would ensure that “health systems contribute to health equity, social justice and the end of exclusion” [30]. 2017;10(3):229–37. Social exclusion is something that can happen to anyone. It is obvious that the concepts of social inclusion and exclusion are of great importance to mental health researchers and clinicians. The tools that are listed have been developed and utilised in a number of different countries, and by researchers from various backgrounds and disciplines. A number of review papers were discovered during the searches and these are noted on the table in Additional file 1. The Social Inclusion Scale (SIS) has three subscales measuring social isolation, relations and acceptance. We focused on those measurement tools developed for use with individual patients in healthcare settings. Van Brakel WH, Anderson AM, Mutatkar R, Bakirtzief Z, Nicholls PG, Raju M, et al. Social work ideals and practice realities. The databases accessed included Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, EconLit, Medline, Social Sciences Full Text, Web of Science, EMBASE and Psyc-INFO. 2001;5(2):18–23. Britain has become an increasingly polarised nation in … Killaspy H, White S, Lalvani N, Berg R, Thachil A, Kallumpuram S, et al. The Poverty and Social Exclusion Survey is also the first national study to attempt to measure social exclusion, and to introduce a methodology for poverty and social exclusion which is internationally comparable. In s.n. Australian Mental Health Outcomes and Classification Network (AMHOCN). It would appear, therefore, that there is scope to develop a measurement tool for this purpose, or to modify an existing tool that covers most or all of the domains felt to be important in the context of primary healthcare. © 2021 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Fourteen of the tools (14/21) mentioned in Table 1 below look at the measurement of the concept of social inclusion specifically, another tool (1/21) was described as a measure of both social inclusion and social exclusion, and then the remaining six tools discovered (6/21) did not mention the specific measurement of either concept in their supporting literature. Having located the background literature naming each tool, attempts were made to contact the authors of each tool by email. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Outcome, recovery and return to work in severe mental illnesses. For this review, final inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed as the searching and exploration of the resulting papers took place [37]. The authors of a review on social inclusion and global mental health that included this SIS tool explained that “a variety of terms, including ‘social inclusion’ and ‘social integration’, are used interchangeably in both research and policy documents” [57]. Labonté RN, Hadi A, Kauffmann XE. Participants were assigned through block randomization to either a social exclusion or inclusion Int.J. Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, Group P. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. Brennan A, Rhodes J, Tyler P. New findings on the nature of economic and social exclusion in England and the implications for new policy initiatives: discussion paper 101. Ramon S, Griffiths CA, Nieminen I, Pedersen M, Dawson I. Accessed 15 Jan 2017. The search strategy for these databases included three rows of search terms to be applied to the titles and abstracts of publications. Omtzigt DJ. No-one knows how many gay people there are in Britain. Environ Urban. The European Commission later introduced the term social exclusion into discussions alongside the term “poverty” for many programmes and initiatives from the early 1990s [3,4,5]; this culminated with 2010 being named as the European Year for Combating Poverty and Social Exclusion. Google Scholar. PubMed Central  Charles Fraser gave a basic explanation of this term in 1999 when he said, “Social inclusion must come down to somewhere to live, something to do and someone to love. It is very helpful in the search for viable constructs on which to do sound scientific research. Commentators have discussed the apparent rise in popularity of this relatively new term social exclusion; one wrote that “conventional measures of poverty and deprivation were considered inadequate to capture the alienation, isolation or ‘exclusion’ from socially normative functioning” [13]. Int J Cult Mental Health. Behav. Social exclusion, global poverty, and scales of (in)justice : rethinking law and poverty in a globalizing world. A selection of the definitions cited in the papers is included in Table 1, Additional file 1 and other commonly cited definitions are listed in Tables 3 and 4 below. The researchers conducted qualitative studies on the meaning of social inclusion in that country and then altered the domains and questions asked as part of the tool accordingly. A scale generated by Bude and Lantermann was used to assess social exclusion. In 7 experiments, the authors manipulated social exclusion by telling people that they would end up alone later in life or that other participants had rejected them. Social Exclusion Unit (SEU) Office of the Deputy Prime Minister. Relationship between health, experience of discrimination, and social inclusion among mental health service users in Hong Kong. General primary healthcare is the ideal place to seek to assess social exclusion also the... 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